Windows 8.1 and Windows 10

The product key is located inside the product packaging, on the receipt or confirmation page for a digital purchase or in a confirmation e-mail that shows you purchased Windows.

If you purchased a digital copy from Microsoft Store, you can locate your product key in your Account under Digital Content.

Windows 7

The product key is located inside the box that the Windows DVD came in, on the DVD, on the receipt or confirmation page for a digital purchase or in a confirmation e-mail that shows you purchased Windows.

If you purchased a digital copy from Microsoft Store, you can locate your product key in your Account under Digital Content.

Academic Products

Your product key is located on the receipt page when you purchase or in the Order History section of the WebStore from which you ordered the software.

Devices Pre-Installed with Windows

Before using operating system copies from this site for install, re-install or recovery on devices with pre-installed operating systems, see your device manufacturer or reseller for the customized drivers and applications specific to your machine.

Using operating systems copied from this site for install, re-install or recovery may void your support agreement with your manufacturer or reseller.

Any drivers or programs that were installed by the device manufacturer or reseller may be removed during installation.

Windows 8.1 & 10:

The product key may be embedded on the motherboard or may be on the Certificate of Authenticity sticker on the bottom of the device.

Windows 7:

For devices that came with Windows 7 pre-installed, the product key may be on the Certificate of Authenticity sticker on the bottom of the device.

For more information about Windows product keys and genuine Microsoft products, see What is a product key and How to Tell site.


NSClient++ Return Code Of 139 IS Out Of Bound… 0

This means something is wrong. To find out what is wrong you need to check the NSClient++ log file. The message means that an plugin returned an invalid exit code and there can be many reasons for this but most likely something is miss configured in NSClient++ or a script your using is not working. So the only way to diagnose this is to check the NSClient++ log.

One simple way to show the log is to run in test mode like so:

net stop nscp

nscp test

… wait for errors to be reported …


net start nscp


How Do You Run A Script In Powershell? 0


Run A Script In PowerShell?

  1. Launch Windows PowerShell, and wait a moment for the PS command prompt to appear
  2. Navigate to the directory where the script lives

PS> cd C:\my_path\ (enter)

  1. Execute the script:

PS> .\run_import_script.ps1 (enter)

If it fails, you should check “setexecutionpolicy”


  1. Launch a Windows PowerShell window run as an administrator.
  2. Navigate to the location where the reactivateUsers.ps1 is located on the central node.
  1. Update the PowerShell execution policy on the system to allow the script to run.

In the PowerShell window, enter set-executionpolicy unrestricted.

The system will prompt to confirm the change.

Enter the letter “Y” or press the enter key to change the execution policy setting.


PowerShell’s execution policy settings dictate what PowerShell scripts can be run on a Windows system. To run the reactivateUsers script, the execution policy needs to be changed.

  1. Run the PowerShell script reactivateUsers.ps1. PowerShell requires specifying a path with the script in order to run. If the PowerShell window is in the current directory of the script _._ can be used for specifying the current path. Assuming the PowerShell window is in the directory where reactivateUsers.ps1, enter .\reactivateUsers.ps1 to run the script.
  1. Set the execution policy back to the value it was before running the script using the set-executionpolicy commandlet.
  1. And you’re done!

What am I missing??

Or: you can run the PowerShell script from cmd.exe like this:

powershell -noexit “& “”C:\my_path\run_import_script.ps1″”” (enter)


What are the process state in Unix ? 0


What is the process state in Unix?

This is a small experiment to show the life cycle of a Unix process. A Unix process is created in the idle state and is then moved between ready to run, running, and possibly waiting (or sleeping) , until it exits and becomes a zombie. Once a process, usually the parent process, reaps the exit status of the zombie, then the process is destroyed.

As a process executes it changes state according to its circumstances. Unix processes have the following states:

Running: The process is either running or it is ready to run.

Waiting: The process is waiting for an event or for a resource.

Stopped: The process has been stopped, usually by receiving a signal.

Zombie: The process is dead but has not been removed from the process table.

What is a zombie?

When a program forks and the child finishes before the parent, the kernel still keeps some of its information about the child in case the parent might need it – for example, the parent may need to check the child’s exit status. To be able to get this information, the parent calls `wait ()’; In the interval between the child terminating and the parent calling `wait ()’, the child is said to be a `zombie’ (If you do `ps’, the child will have a `Z’ in its status field to indicate this.)

How can a parent and child process communicate?

A parent and child can communicate through any of the normal inter-process communication schemes (pipes, sockets, message queues, shared memory), but also have some special ways to communicate that take advantage of their relationship as a parent and child. One of the most obvious is that the parent can get the exit status of the child.

write your view on this topic in the comment box!

Penetration Testing(Pen Test) The Ultimate Guide 0

What is penetration testing?

Penetration testing is an art. You can find out a lot of techniques and understand all of the tools, but the reality is that software is complex, especially when you start putting a lot of software systems together.

It’s that complexity that means that there is no one-size-fits-all solution when it comes to finding ways to get into systems.

An attack that may work against one web server may not work for the same web server running on a different system.

Sometimes, you can try a particular attack a number of times without success before it suddenly starts working and you find a way to break into the system.

A skilled and successful penetration tester has not only the technical skills necessary to run the tools and understand what is happening, but also the creativity necessary to try different approaches.

Penetration testing is a type of security testing that is used to test the insecurity of an application. It is conducted to find the security risk which might be present in the system.

If a system is not secured, then any attacker can disrupt or take authorized access to that system.

Security risk is normally an accidental error that occurs while developing and implementing the software. For example, configuration errors, design errors, and software bugs, etc.

Why is penetration testing required?

Ultimately, the goal of a penetration tester is to help an organization improve their defenses in case a real attacker comes by to break in and steal information.

This information can come in many forms. In the case of a business, it may be intellectual property. This is any information that the business relies on to set them apart from other companies.

This may be patents, source code, or any other documentation about how the business is run. Other forms of data are banking information, credit card numbers, social security numbers, usernames, passwords, and especially anything related to health care.

Attackers may be trying to steal any of that information, because it can be sold or used to gain additional access to other systems.

Penetration testing normally evaluates a system’s ability to protect its networks, applications, endpoints and users from external or internal threats. It also attempts to protect the security controls and ensures only authorized access.

Penetration testing is essential because:

It identifies a simulation environment i.e., how an intruder may attack the system through white hat attack.

It helps to find weak areas where an intruder can attack to gain access to the computer’s features and data.

It supports to avoid black hat attack and protects the original data.

It estimates the magnitude of the attack on potential business.

It provides evidence to suggest, why it is important to increase investments in security aspect of technology.

Note: – we have been talking about information security, and that’s a phrase you will hear about a lot. The objective is to protect the information assets of an organization. However, an attacker may not care about your information assets. They may care more about your computing assets. In other words, they may simply be looking to collect a system they can add to their network of systems that will perform tasks for them. This is a very lucrative business, so don’t assume that just because you are a small organization you aren’t a target. You are. Especially if you are easy for the picking. Your systems and their computing power are just as good as those from large, high-profile companies—more so if they are easy to break into.

Testing types

Black box test


The first is called a black box test. This is something like a traditional penetration test, but on the extreme end.

A black box test means the tester has no knowledge of the target other than who the target is. The attacker may not know ip addresses, domain names, or anything.

Gray box test

When someone is performing a full-blown black box penetration test, it may be a good chance to test response capabilities.

In that case, you may have a red team, also sometimes called a tiger team.

The red team is the attack team. They are the ones trying to get in. The ones on the inside, whether they are aware it’s happening or not (and sometimes the operations staff has no idea in order to get a true sense of response capabilities), are called the blue team.

You may also have a white team, which is aware of both ends of the equation. This is more common in competitions, however, and the white team in that case is entirely neutral and manages the competition.

White box test

This is generally full knowledge. The attack team works closely with the target. It may involve having credentials established ahead of time.

This allows the tester to perform full local (on-system) assessments without having to penetrate before checking the local settings.

You may have systems that appear to be very hard on the outside, but once the system is popped it’s a soft, gooey mess on the inside.

This can be an enormous problem, so it’s helpful to check local hardening as well as remote hardening.

The operations team is generally informed and works with the attack team to ensure that there is no impact to customers as a result of the testing.

When to perform penetration testing?

Penetration testing is an essential feature that needs to be performed regularly for securing the functioning of a system. In addition to this, it should be performed whenever:

Security system discovers new threats by attackers.

You add a new network infrastructure.

You update your system or install new software.

You relocate your office.

You set up a new end-user program/policy.

Penetration Testing Methodology

The Penetration Testing methodology we will be using in this article is a modified version of a common methodology I would use when working with a client. It will allow us to get right to the meat of penetration testing.


There will be a number of areas that we won’t get into that will come up as you keep working, including the following:

Intelligence gathering: – this is reconnaissance work against your target and will vary based on how much information you were provided before the engagement.

Scanning – before you start determining your attack strategy, you need to know what your targets are. This will provide you with a lot of information about systems and ports as well as, potentially, any firewalls that may be in place.

Vulnerability identification: – once you have some target systems and applications identified, getting a list of known vulnerabilities will tell you where you can quickly and easily get in.

Exploitation: – the vulnerabilities that you have identified will lead you to exploitation. This is where you actually begin to penetrate the systems by exploiting the vulnerabilities that you have identified. Some vulnerabilities are very difficult to exploit, and other exploits may just not work. You may end up finding a lot of false positives in this stage where the vulnerability was identified but the expected exploit didn’t work.

Reporting: – once you are done, make sure to clearly document all of your findings so you have something tangible and coherent to present to your employer or client.


How is penetration testing beneficial?

Penetration testing offers the following benefits:

Enhancement of the management system:- it provides detailed information about the security threats. In addition to this, it also categorizes the degree of vulnerabilities and suggests you, which one is more vulnerable and which one is less. So, you can easily and accurately manage your security system by allocating the security resources accordingly.

Avoid fines: – penetration testing keeps your organization’s major activities updated and complies with the auditing system. So, penetration testing protects you from giving fines.

Protection from financial damage: – a simple breach of security system may cause millions of dollars of damage. Penetration testing can protect your organization from such damages.

Customer protection: – breach of even a single customer’s data may cause big financial damage as well as reputation damage. It protects the organizations who deal with the customers and keep their data intact.

How to become a penetration tester?

Anyone can be a penetration tester. Good penetration testers require experience and knowledge,

You should keep in mind the expected ethical obligations. If you just want to go out and break into systems without regard to laws, you are free to do that, of course. That doesn’t make you a penetration tester, though. It makes you a criminal, and it’s entirely possible that you won’t be free for much longer.some organization that is very understanding and lenient that will let you try things out on their systems, or, better yet, get yourself a small lab system that you can work on.

Penetration Lab

Get a copy of virtualbox, or vmware or parallels if you are more comfortable with them. Install it on your system. You can download virtualbox from

Get a copy of kali linux. This will be an .iso image that you will use to install kali into a virtual machine. You can download the current .iso from Virtualbox will allow you to install a new operating system from the .iso image you have downloaded.

Get a copy of metasploitable 2. There are different places to get this. You should use google, bing, or your favorite search tool to look for a place from which to download it. It will make for a good target for some of what we will be doing. This does not require installation. It is a vmware image that you should be able to just open in any virtualization software that you have, including virtualbox.